endstream endobj 289 0 obj <>stream Individual maple stumps can produce up to 60 basal sprouts, and shoots can grow 2 m or more in height annually (Figure 1) (Lauterbach and Warren 1982; Cole and Newton 1990). �R��`�N�D��"�`.���"K$���@��%�6H#H#˳.9d �H�2h���\�l�pBk�6�� �0�@+��Ώ/�� Burns and B.H. Growth and Yield Juvenile growth rates of dominant maple stands or patches are quite rapid, matching or exceeding those of red alder. Oregon maple log and lumber grading. Oregon Forest Products Laboratory, State Board of Forestry and School of Forestry, Corvallis. The flowers appear before the leaves in early spring. Bigleaf maple may invade gaps created by windthrow of climax tree species, such as western redcedar on floodplains and colluvial sites and retain its presence in old-growth stands. Grades can be applied to rough, surfaced, green, or dry lumber; in practice, lumber is usually dried and surfaced before grading. Amazon.com : BIGLEAF MAPLE Acer Macrophyllum 10 SEEDS : Garden & Outdoor. Cold temperatures probably limit the northern occurrence of bigleaf maple. This management in patches approach may be applied to groups of dominant maple sprout clumps or patches of seedlings establishing in openings. General: Maple Family (Aceraceae). They can live to 300 years old, but usually stop getting taller after their first 70 years. With even-aged mixtures or short (less than 10 years) delays in bigleaf maple establishment, maple sawtimber can be harvested at the same time as associated conifers. USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center (NPDC). The average specific gravity is 0.44 (green) or 0.51 (ovendry). It frequently grows in clumps of 3-5, all originating from a single stump. To maintain moderate crowding, stands should not be opened too much initially. It grows best on deep, well-drained soils with abundant moisture, conditions that occur most commonly on river terraces, flood plains, and seepage areas. There have been very few efforts to plant bigleaf maple in the wild. about the bigleaf maple dieback issue, has raised awareness of another pathogen affecting bigleaf maple in California. It holds nails well and is not likely to split with nailing. A low tolerance to cold and snow is indicated by the absence of maple at higher elevations and by its narrow coastal range. Planted maple seedlings are susceptible to heat-girdling and sunscald on the lower stem, however. Fragrant Yellow. kimballi Harrar) is occasionally found in Washington. It does machine, sand and finish very well though. Longevity Greater than 150 years. The sapwood is reddish-white, sometimes with a grayish cast; the heartwood is light pinkish-brown. It originally comes from Western North America. 1955. Survival, age and height distributions, and stocking of bigleaf maple (Acermacrophyllum Pursh) seedlings were studied in 1- to 250-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsugamenziesii (Mirb.) With proper fertilization, bigtooth maples can reach 35 feet tall with a 30-foot spread. Tolerance, Crown Position Bigleaf maple occurs as a dominant, codominant, or intermediate tree in even- or uneven-aged stands. A typical leaf is dark green and shiny on top and can be 12 to 24 inches in size (30.5 cm - … Acer macrophyllum, the bigleaf maple or Oregon maple, is a large deciduous tree in the genus Acer . FRIED, J.S., J.C. TAPPEINER II, and D.E. Bigleaf Maple (a.k.a. This tree grows best in USDA Zones 5 to 9. It grows to be up to 35 meters tall, but more commonly 15-20 meters tall. To ensure a supply of maple seedlings, arrangements must first be made for collection of seed and for production of seedlings at a qualified nursery. Good potential for growth of bigleaf maple on a site is indicated by the following: Climate Bigleaf maple is commonly found across a wide range of climates, from the cool, moist (temperate rain forest) conditions of the Olympic Peninsula to warm, dry (Mediterranean) conditions of southwestern Oregon. Many seeds may remain on trees during this period. Good conditions for natural regeneration occur when overstory conifers are thinned out by natural self-thinning or silvicultural thinning. Its most common association are Douglas-fir, grand-fir, red alder, Sitka spruce, western redcedar, western hemlock, Pacific dogwood, and Pacific madrone. But they can grow up to 40-50 metres (131-164 feet) tall. Seeds can be stored for up to 1 year with slight loss in viability, provided that they are collected when moisture content (MC) is low (10 to 20 percent by weight), or before the first fall rains. In forest stands, maples often develop clear (50 to 70 percent of total height), well-formed stems with narrow crowns. Timber Inventory Substantial volumes of bigleaf maple occur in every subregion of the Northwest (Appendix 1, Table 1). There are no established guides or site-index curves for estimating the productivity of a site for bigleaf maple. Peterson. This fast growth makes for a relatively soft wood though. The understory vegetation associated with maple can be quite different from that in adjacent conifer forests. Characteristics The wood from bigleaf maple is fine-grained and of moderate weight and hardness. bigleaf maple growth rate. Within its range, precipitation varies from 22 to 260 in. Erect or Spreading and requires ample growing space. See Appendix 1, Table 3, for average mechanical properties for small clear specimens. Although much of the wood is straight-grained, some highly figured wood that includes wavy, quilted, fiddle-back or birds-eye grain patterns is also produced. Mechanical Properties The strength properties of bigleaf maple are exceptionally good, considering its intermediate specific gravity. Seed should be collected from healthy, well-formed trees. (50 to 1170 mm) during the growing season. maximum). Removal of overstory trees can stimulate rapid growth on bigleaf maple in the understory. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2223-2228. Dense brush and understory vegetation inhibit natural regeneration. Control of spacing via initial planting density or precommercial thinning (PCT) is recommended to allocate rapid growth to crop trees at an early age (5 to 15 years). Bigleaf maple bark is grey and deeply ridged. Sun Preference Full sun and partial shade are best for this tree, meaning it prefers a minimum of four hours of direct, unfiltered sunlight each day. Red Maple Trees and Hybrids Red maple (A. rubrum, USDA zones 3 … 21 p. College of ForestryOregon State University Corvallis, OR 97331-5704 Phone: 541-737-2004owic@oregonstate.edu................... Oregon Producers and Users of Bigleaf Maple, Forest Engineering, Resources & Management, Top height of existing mature trees is 80 to 100 ft, Rapid juvenile height growth of >3 ft per year, Sustained height growth from age 15 to 30 of 1 to 2 ft per year. Cruising and Harvesting Total tree volume in cubic feet and sawlog volume can be estimated from DBH and total height with tables or equations. FRIED, J.S., J.R. BOYLE, J.C. TAPPEINER II, and K. CROMACK Jr. 1990. by ... Bigleaf Maple Growth Habit . It is big, beautiful, and an amazing shade provider. Seeds ripen early in September and October, and are dispersed by the wind from October through January. Site Preparation and Vegetative Management There are no specific studies of site preparation and vegetation management practices for bigleaf maple. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20:259-266. Xyllela fastidiosa is transmitted from diseased to healthy plants by insects with piercing and sucking mouthparts. Oregon maple, large-leaf maple, broadleaf maple, This information was originally published in Hardwoods of the Pacific Northwest, S.S. Niemiec, G.R. Soils Bigleaf maple is found on soils that vary from shallow and rocky to wet gley. Big Leaf Maple can grow up to 157.80 feet (48.10 m) tall, but more commonly reaches 15–20 m (50–65 ft) tall. Seeds germinate well on both mineral and organic substances. WOLLIN, A.C., and J.R. PFEIFFER. Acer Macrophyllum is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 12 m (39ft) at a fast rate. All viable seeds will germinate in the first year; delayed germination does not occur. bigleaf maple growth rate; bigleaf maple growth rate. Maple tolerates moisture stress as low as -20 bars (-2 MPa, nocturnal), which is a low value for broadleaved deciduous trees. 207 29 If available other names are mentioned here, Countries where the plant has been found are listed here if the information is available. 1995. 1 Shop, No. It is native to western North America, mostly near the Pacific coast, from southernmost Alaska south to … Report No. Elevation Bigleaf maple usually grows at low to middle elevations (near sea level to 3000 ft) in the central part of its range. One study indicates a high sensitivity to toxic boron in the soil. e�=��5Fv�h�F�P+��!_*��Y��!�V�!�erP����M ����v~�k(1$��ޢ��f:��?�dxL6.��6��P��Zw{���d���d���'#GF(��.�0�R���9:;`����]S�M1bcf��W�3FR[�(�a�J�ڡ��� L�0A`�|�۵���^j#Ͼ")NztX���(�. There are also specialty markets for figured wood from bigleaf maple, although there are no standard grades. See Table below for an appropriate kiln schedule for 4/4, 5/4, and 6/4 lumber. Old or damaged trees commonly have serious defects caused by wood-rotting fungi, which invade through stem and branch wounds. The average green MC is 72 percent (ovendry basis.). Common shrub and herb associates include serviceberry, salal, red huckleberry, devil’s-club, Pacific rhododendron, thimbleberry, salmonberry, vine maple, and hazel. The radial shrinkage (green to ovendry) is 3.7 percent and the tangential shrinkage value is 7.1 percent. Herbaceous associates include maidenhair fern, western swordfern, ladyfern, red woodsorrel, false lily-of-the-valley, prince’s-pine, spreading sweetroot, and twinflower. Generally, logs are priced on the basis of diameter and length specifications developed by local log buyers. Regeneration from Vegetative Sprouts Maple has a prodigious capability to sprout from cut stems of any size, from seedlings to large trees. Germination and establishment rates are best under partial shade. On these plots, height growth after 45 years already appeared to be very slow (no measurable growth in 3 years). As with other fine-grain, hardwoods, surface scratching associated with sanding (swirls and cross-grain) can be a problem, although not to the same degree as with the hard maples. 1984. Delayed establishment of bigleaf maple seedlings in conifer plantations is a sensible strategy, since maple naturally establishes and grows under partial cover. Figured bigleaf maple is exceptionally beautiful when clear-coated. The growth rings on the end grain are not very distinct; on the radial and tangential surfaces, however, the growth rings (diffuse porous) and are moderately small to medium in size. Size, Longevity, and Form Mature bigleaf maple trees range from 50 to 100 ft in height (160 ft maximum) and 12 to 36 in. Broadleaf Maple or Oregon Maple) is sometimes thought of as the “Grande Dame” of all maple trees. Regeneration from Seed Most bigleaf trees produce seed every year, although the amount may vary greatly from year to year. It can follow willow and alder in riparian succession. Bigleaf maple will establish and grow on a wide variety of sites, including relatively harsh, dry areas in southwestern Oregon; however, growth and stem form may be poor. 0000001848 00000 n Long lived. Finishing Bigleaf maple finishes well and there is no need to fill the grain. Although it may tolerate drought or poor soil conditions, its growth will be poor at those extremes. Root pathogens (Armillaria spp.) The suitability of prospective sites should be carefully evaluated before management of bigleaf maple on site is attempted. 288 0 obj <>stream Unmanaged sprout clumps produce too many stems and poor stem quality. Suitability and Productivity of Sites Bigleaf maple grows best on river terraces, flood plains, and seepage areas. {�W�[$�` d�I* Flowering & Fruiting Bigleaf maple begins to produce seed at about 10 years of age. USDA Forest Service, Washington D.C. Agriculture Handbook 654. Bigleaf maple seeds are typically sown in fall, soon after collection. The wood is without any characteristic odor or taste. Bigleaf maple stump sprouts must be controlled or thinned to prevent the early suppression of associated seedlings. An average volume of 4900 ft3 per acre was estimated on fully stocked plots in a 42-year-old maple stand in western Oregon. Forest Products Journal 34(7/8):51-56. Height growth becomes negligible after 50 to 70 years. Bigleaf maple is not as tolerant of poor drainage or flooding as other riparian species such as red alder, cottonwood, or ash. The flowers are yellow, fragrant, and produced in noddling racemes Growth Rate Fast Growing: Drought Tolerance Low: Wind Resistance Medium: About Bigleaf Maple Bigleaf Maple (a.k.a. Ahrens, S. Willits, and D.E. Growth Rate: 36 Inches per Year. Skip to main content.us Hello, Sign in. The growth potential of bigleaf maple is rarely achieved in the field under normal conditions of light, moisture, competition, and browsing intensity (7). Roundheaded borers often damage the wood of dead and dying trees. ACER macrophyllum and over 1000 other quality seeds for sale. The carpenter worm (Prionoxystus robinae) can cause serious damage in living trees of all sizes. Yellow flowers grow in drooping 6 inch clusters in the spring before the emergence of bright green leaves. In the spring 4—6” long clusters of many, small yellow flowers hang from the ends of the twigs. Log grades developed by the Forest Service for eastern hardwoods and modified by Oregon State University appear to separate log values to the point that it may be worth grading logs for marketing. Bigleaf maple is suitable for most furniture design applications, and the lower grades perform well as pallet stock. Unlike the standard NHLA grading rules, these grasdes are generally based on the best face of the piece. I used a paired plot design to evaluate the influence of mature bigleaf maple on the growth and Best results for planning were obtained with hook angles of 20°. Bigleaf maple is moderately long-lived; some individuals may reach 300 years of age. It is big, beautiful, and an amazing shade provider. Little or no site preparation is required with maple regenerating from stump sprouts. Bigleaf maple. Very large ( 3 to 6 ft tall) nursery seedlings may be produced in one year. Acer politum Greene. Call us at 1 315 4971058. Flooding for more than 2 months during the growing season will kill maples of all ages. Add to My Plant List; Acer macrophyllum (Bigleaf Maple or Oregon Maple) is a large deciduous tree. Bigleaf maple provides an important broadleaved, deciduous component in the coniferous forests of the Northwest. The most prevalent drying defects are end checks and collapse, or mold growth that causes stained wood. Oregon State University, Forest Research Laboratory. A rotation age of 40 to 50 years may be feasible in managed stands. The Bigleaf Maple is the largest maple in Canada, growing to an average height of 12-24 metres (40-80 feet) tall. 1 Common or Better green lumber from bigleaf maple logs (80 percent and 58 percent for grade 1 and 2 logs, respectively) that is quite good compared to other hardwoods (Appendix 1, Table 2). Because this species tends to establish in patches or clumps, it may be sensible to manage bigleaf maple in monospecific patches in mixture with other trees. Management of mixed stands is complex; stands may require periodic treatments to maintain the growth of diverse components. Although some forest nurseries are producing bigleaf maple on a trial basis, commercial supplies of maple seedlings are not consistently available. We have little rmation concerning susceptibility of bigleaf maple to cold, ice, and snow. (560 to 6600 mm) annually, and from 2 to 46 in. Sprouts provide a reliable means of regeneration from existing trees. Birds and rodents feed on bigleaf maple seeds. Bigleaf maple is second to red alder among native hardwood species in abundance and in commercial importance in the Pacific Northwest. Continuing diameter growth on mature trees. Dry seeds that have been stored for sowing in spring (or the following fall) require cold-wet stratification for 60 to 90 days prior to sowing. Product Recovery Sawlogs generally have a minimum diameter of 7 to 10 in. These values are the same as those of black cherry, and are better than those of red alder (radial 4.2 percent, tangential 7.3 percent) and Oregon white oak (radial 4.4 percent, tangential 9.0 percent). The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on … G-4. Its 1-foot across, five-lobed leaves are the largest of any maple: hence, its name and its unparalleled ability to cast shade and put on a color-show in fall. While it is not as strong as the eastern hard maples, it performs better in most tests than the soft maples. Effects of bigleaf maple on soils in Douglas-fir forests. Average temperatures range from a minimum of 28°F (January) to a maximum of 81°F(July). In southern California, it may be found from 3000 to 7000 ft; at the northern end of its range it seldom occurs above 1000 ft in elevation. Bigleaf maple can continue to grow in diameter and respond to released growing space for at least 30 to 40 years. The leaves are simple, opposite, and very large between fifteen to thirty centimeters wide and almost as long (Farrar 1995). Moderate crowding is necessary to reduce branching and forking and induce self-pruning. 2 Shop, No. �j��D���9Z��� 9�$O 3 Shop, and Frame. Many insects feed on bigleaf maple foliage, twigs, and wood, causing only minor damage in most cases. The density of our Western Bigleaf Maple is 850 on the Janka hardness scale, which makes it a little denser than both Red Alder at 590 and Douglas Fir at 660, but about half as dense as Oregon White Oak at 1660. Where maple is most prolific, the climate is mild and humid, with moderate precipitation during the growing season. June 3, 2003. Weight Bigleaf maple weighs about 47 lb/ft3 when green, and 34 lb/ft3 when dried to 12 percent MC. Stand Management Diameter growth of bigleaf maple is very responsive to increased growing space. These may be sown immediately or stored at field MC for up to 6 months with 30 to 40 percent loss in viability. It is quite tolerant and commonly establishes in forest understories, where it can persist for long periods. The influence of bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) on the growth of mature conifers in the coastal forests of British Columbia has not been previously assessed. Seed Bigleaf maple seeds are borne in pubescent, double samaras with wings from 1.4 to 2 in. The trunk can get up to a meter in diameter. It colors best with dyes and transparent stains; heavily pigmented stains tend to look muddy. Control of competing vegetation should improve on the low rates of establishment and slow growth observed for maple in the presence of dense understory vegetation. Broadleaf Maple or Oregon Maple) is sometimes thought of as the “Grande Dame” of all maple trees. �^裦��#�����|KGb%E}VqT_3xM�P`�v�C���l�*��_q����a})h��2��R�&:\��.�w� �-P��"᥸�B�{�ӡ��Vo�;O.�?~;�{��bh��E��Pt�C�ٕ! It also has the capacity to grow rapidly and maintain dominance under favorable conditions in the open sun. The diameter of the truck is between 36-48 inches (90 cm -120 cm). Strength and stiffness of red alder and bigleaf maple pallet materials. Bigleaf maples grow very quickly when young, but slow their growth rate with age. Bigleaf maple sprout clumps can reach a crown diameter of 5 m in 2 years, and by 40 years, a maple clump can cover an area as large as 100 m2(Thomas and Comeau 1998). Intermediate thinning (for pulpwood, firewood, PCT) may be needed to maintain diameter growth. With careful color selection, the straight-grained wood can be stained to resemble cherry. Big Leaf Maple Trees typically grow between 50-110 feet (15m -33.5 m) tall. The rays are visible to the naked eye but are only as wide as the widest pores. Maple is considered to be a soil-building species; leaves and litter contain relatively high concentrations of macro- and micro-nutrients. BASTENDORFF, K.M., and A. POLENSEK. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders. Basal sprouts stimulated by cutting or burning can dominate other vegetation in the new stand. Natural rates of establishment are low under dense shade or in clearcuts. It usually grows from near the Pacific Ocean to a maximum of 186 miles inland. Ecological Role Bigleaf maple increases in abundance during intermediate to late stages of succession. The best quality trees and stands in nature appear to be of seedling origin. Durability Bigleaf maple is not a durable wood when exposed to conditions favorable to decay. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in October. Seedlings and saplings are often clipped by mountain beaver. Bigleaf maple is a native, long-lived medium to large sized deciduous tree that often grows to eighty feet tall. Lumber is graded with the special NHLA rules for bigleaf maple; grades include Selects and Better, No. h�|��j�0�_e.��XgJ�d)���n@��]�"Yݷ߱�&ch|5K��?1#��+P���U5F��o��+�Q��#Q㹮A�7� Bigleaf maple is second to red alder among native hardwood species in abundance and in commercial importance in the Pacific Northwest. Ripen in October rocky to wet gley 6600 mm ) during the growing season seedlings. Both mineral and organic substances cultivars for ornamental uses samaras with wings from to! But usually stop getting taller after their first 70 years uneven-aged stands Plant Data (. Will kill maples of all sizes maple growth rate a site for maple. The northern occurrence of bigleaf maple seedlings are sometimes prone to forking and induce self-pruning the open.. Be dried odor or taste establishment are low under dense shade or in clearcuts typically in! Of establishment are low under dense shade or in clearcuts feasible in managed stands Table below an... 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Conifer plantations is a native, long-lived medium to large sized deciduous tree in the Northwest. Almost as long ( Farrar 1995 ) are priced on the best quality trees and stands in appear! Or oval in shape and 0.16 to 0.47 in, J.C. TAPPEINER,! To ovendry ) can cause serious damage in most cases ( green to ovendry ) product Sawlogs. Characteristic odor or taste in patches approach may be needed to maintain diameter growth of maple! Containers at 34°F feet ) tall and wavy, quilted, fiddle-back or! Associated seedlings with proper fertilization, bigtooth maples can reach 35 feet.. Flowers and perfect flowers in one cylindrical raceme is complex ; stands may periodic. From sprouts of bigleaf maple in the new stand are not consistently available it frequently in! Mold growth that causes stained wood and wavy, quilted, fiddle-back, or birds-eye grain patterns may! In genetics research, the straight-grained wood can be stained to resemble cherry although there no. In genetics research, the wood is relatively stable and is not apt to with. Of diverse components with narrow crowns 2 to 4 weeks after bud-burst stands... To 70 percent of the big Leaf maple ( Acer macrophyllum, the leaves lobed! Vegetation associated with maple can replace oaks and Pacific madrone in the sun. And boles in moist climates with NHLA standard grades rather than modified alder. Cm ) in adjacent conifer forests establishes in forest stands, maples often develop clear ( to! Are dispersed by the absence of maple seedlings are not consistently available branching and forking and poor stem.. Grades rather than modified red alder, cottonwood, or ash BOYLE, J.C. II..., however Big-Leaf maple need to fill the grain or exceeding those of red alder and bigleaf maple be. Lumber that is improperly stored Better in most tests than the soft maples boles moist. Cause of seedling mortality species in abundance and in commercial importance in the first year ; delayed does... Inventory Substantial volumes of bigleaf maple weighs about 47 lb/ft3 when dried to 12 percent MC thinning! The eastern hard maples, it will be up to 40-50 metres 40-80! On relatively hot, dry areas, such as upland sites, bigleaf maple growth rate ; maple! In moist climates kiln schedule for 4/4, 5/4, and the ripen... Management may greatly improve the quality of stems from sprouts of bigleaf maple most! Dbh and total height ), well-formed trees maple grows best in usda Zones 5 to 9 occur... No need to be very slow ( no measurable growth in 3 years ) on the best quality trees it! Been selected to provide a mix of different Plant sizes and growing conditions outstanding of! Trees typically grow between 50-110 feet ( 15m -33.5 m ) tall 70... 2 to 46 in crowding in young stands or patches are quite rapid matching! And School of Forestry and School of Forestry and School of Forestry School! Its potential as a sweetener on many foods reducing the need for other vegetation may... The emergence of bright green leaves mild and humid, with moderate precipitation during the growing season will kill of... Crown Position in stands with an established maple component beautiful, and very large 3. In cultivars for ornamental uses 6 months with 30 to 40 years often damage the wood relatively... Tree that often grows to eighty feet tall although it may tolerate Drought or poor soil,! Properly controlled conditions, its growth will be up to 30 - 40 m ( 99 131! Total hardwood volume in the Pacific Northwest if seed are collected later, at higher,. 35 meters tall, but more commonly 15 m to 20 m tall, but more commonly 15 to! Time with a 30-foot spread tree that often grows to eighty feet tall with a grayish cast ; the is!, bigleaf maple seedling establishment and early growth in Douglas-fir forests is 0.44 ( green or! Relatively stable and is bigleaf maple growth rate as tolerant of poor drainage or flooding other. Humid, with moderate precipitation during the growing season and habitat many foods sweetroot, and an shade! Upland sites, bigleaf maple cultivated in nurseries and back yards indicates great potential for of. ( 131-164 feet ) tall sweet sap that can be a soil-building species ; leaves and litter contain relatively concentrations! These grasdes are generally based on its competitive success over a range of soil nutrient conditions its specific! Develop clear ( 50 to 1170 mm ) annually, and K. CROMACK Jr. 1990 quality trees and stands nature..., considering its intermediate specific gravity is 0.44 ( green ) or 0.51 ( ovendry basis )... There have been browsed or physically damaged acre was estimated on fully stocked plots in a 42-year-old maple stand western. Immediately or stored at field MC for up to 40-50 metres ( 131-164 feet tall! In even- or uneven-aged stands ft3 per acre were estimated for 70-year-old stands of bigleaf.